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Grain Boundary Diffusion

Grain Boundary Diffusion (GBD) in permanent magnets is the process of distributing heavy rare-earth elements into the intergranular material which is wrapped around the grains of a sintered magnet. This process increases the coercivity (Resistance to demagnetization) of the magnet without compromising the induction strength (Br) of the magnet.

The permanent magnets are coated with a thin layer of heavy rare earth metal (HRE) and then undergo special heat treatment. This allows us to create smaller and thinner magnets that have higher resistance to opposing magnets or coils without the risk of demagnetization. Grain Boundary Diffusion (GBD) process is an effective approach for enhancing coercivity with low material cost.

Figure 1. 1 H curves before and after GBD


Stanford Magnets adopts the following two methods:

Importance of Grain Boundary Diffusion

Applications and Implications

Grain boundary diffusion is exploited in various applications, including materials processing and fabrication techniques, to achieve desired material characteristics. For instance, it plays a key role in the heat treatment of metals, ceramic processing, and the manufacturing of semiconductors and electronic components. Additionally, understanding and controlling grain boundary diffusion is essential in the development of high-performance materials for specific applications, such as thermal barriers, superalloys, and nanostructured materials.


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